# How to make sound out of anything.

For a few months now I have been rattling on about sonification. So this is an explanation of how it works, with drawings.

For this example I am going to sonify a pub table, because it was where I was sat when I apparently first explained it properly to someone.

Here is a table. A coin is rolling across it. I want to sonify this. I don’t want to listen to the sound it makes rolling along the table, because that doesn’t tell me much about it. I want to make a new sound that tells me all about the coin’s motion. A sound that contains more information that just listening to the coin or just watching it can tell me. So I measure the coins motion:

I’ve just chosen speed, number of turns and end position here, but I could also have used lots of other variables such as type of coin (material), weight, value and so on.

On the table there is also an ashtray, with a half-smoked fag in it. Because this is also on the table and I want to sonify the table, I do the same sort of measurements on the cigarette.

And then I notice an odd-looking insect, so that gets its data recorded too.

So now I have three sets of three numbers. I could go on. I could also record the leaf blowing over the table and the elbows resting on it and the pint of beer gently bubbling on it. But I’m going to stop for now because I want to explain how the numbers become something you can hear.

To “hear” the data we can map physical properties (The Data) to audible properties (The Sound) in pretty much any way we choose. For a physicist, an obvious way to do this might be to map speed to pitch. I think this is obvious for a physicist because both of these things are measured “per second” (pitch or frequency is measured in Hertz, which means vibrations per second). But we don’t have to do the obvious, we can map any physical property to any audible property.

In this example I’m going to map speed to the pitch of the note, length/postion to the duration of the note and number of turns/legs/puffs to the loudness of the note.

Now I have to choose starting positions and ranges. When I do this I have to consider that:

I want the sound to be audible, which limits the range of pitch to something like  20 – 000 Hz for humans, but I’ll play safe and keep it between 100 Hz and 1000 Hz for now. Very high-pitched sounds aren’t very pleasant after all. I’m going to limit the duration range to between 0.1 and 10 seconds, because it seems reasonable that we would be able to hear  10 different notes per second. (In fact, humans can distinguish about 50 notes per second. Here is a nice article on hearing if you are interested.)

I’m going to limit the loudness range to between 10 dB and 80 dB, but I notice that the number of puffs and turns are small numbers and the number of legs is large. There are a number of ways I could deal with this. I could just say that N=3 corresponds to 10 dB and then when N increases by 10, loudness increases by 2 dB. This would give me a 60 dB insect. But this would mean that I would have just 0.2dB difference between an insect with 253 legs and one with 254 legs. What if that extra leg is really interesting? I know my ear is not going to be able to detect a change in volume of 0.2 dB. Which brings me to the other important requirement for mapping:

I want to be able to easily hear small changes in the data; I want an insect running at a speed of 2cm per second to sound significantly different from an insect running at 3cm per second. The cigarette is burning at 2cm/min = 0.033cm/s and the coin is going at 3m/s = 3000cm/s. This means I really want to be able to distinguish speeds that differ by 0.001cm/s .

So I want to be able to distinguish sounds to within 0.001 over a range of 3000. Possible? Apparently the maximum number of frequencies that the human ear can distinguish is a whopping 330,000. By looking at data over a range of 0-3000 with a precision of 0.001, I’m asking my ear to distnguish 3,000,000 different frequencies. I can’t do it. So I should rethink my mapping in this case, now knowing that if I am looking at data which has a large range, I am either going to have to reduce the range or sacrifice some precision.

We’re not so good at noticing fluctuations in volume. We can hear over a range of about 100 dB before our eras start hurting, and can determine fluctuations of about 1dB. This gives us just 100 loudness points to map to (compared to the 330,000 frequencies) which makes me think that volume should be used for a “rougher” physical property, or for a physical property that doesn’t have a wide range.

Duration is a but easier to handle, as I can extend the duration of a note indefinitely if I want to. For this example I might choose 10mm to be mapped to 0.1 seconds and then for every extra 10mm I add on 0.1 seconds of duration

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2. Brian Thielemier

Interesting concept with many possibilities – student writing for instance. I teach English in Pueblo, Colorado U.S., and am curious about how I would make sound out of student writing in order to listen (or measure) for discrepancies. How might I go about this? Many Thanks.

3. Brian Camarena

I would like to know with what are you generating sound with? Are you using some sort of synthesizer? If so what is the name of it? Would each variable have its own sound source? And how do you decide on what sound is adequate for that variable?

Im curious as I have been studying Digital Design and data visualization at CU Denver I belive that this could go hand and hand with the visual aspects.
I am interested how you are going about mapping he sounds to objects aswell. are you using MAX MSP to or processing to map the data arrays to sound software?

4. bill chesley

i am a sound designer in n.y.c. . this is some really interesting stuff. along the lines of the previous reply-er, i don’t quite understand how to connect your dots— what are you using to generate the sounds– synths, etc.– these are some great ideas! thanks.

5. Dave Britton

Too bad you’re using sound-creating software that is commercial instead of open source. The CDP software is “only” 42 pounds sterling for students… and doesn’t come in a version for linux, on which most physicists work. Lily, tell your music buddies (e.g. Archer Endrich) to switch to supercollider – the music software for real electronic musicians who can program (http://supercollider.sourceforge.net) and dump the commercial garbage for community-minded free and open source software.

• Dave Britton

If you’re interested in MAX/MSP you should look at the open source version, Pd, at http://puredata.info/ (note that the MSP in MAX/MSP stands for Miller S. Puckette, the musician behind Pd and MAX.) The information about Lily Asquith’s LHC sonification software processing is given in the link at the top of this page to https://lhcsound.wordpress.com/2011/01/03/how-we-sonify-atlas-data-technical-notes/
which says …”These columns of numbers are then read into the compositional software we are using, which is called CDP. We use CDP to make the numerical data into sounds.” A link to the CDP website is on the blogroll in the upper right of this page. CDP is a commercial product owned by Endritch, so it makes sense that he is using his own stuff for the final musification step. My sadness is that the Higgs boson is free and open source, so the software used to sonify it should be too. But didn’t I read recently that Microsoft had applied for a patent on the Higgs boson?

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